Return to Scriptural Physics Home Page Purpose And Scope Of This Article The purpose of this article is to foster the development of intuitive concepts in atomic physics so that knowledge in this field will become more accessible and understandable to a larger group of people than is currently the case. The term, "atomic physics" will include quantum mechanics, but will not be limited to just this one particular field or its particular method of exposition. Conceptual problems in physics manifest themselves mostly at the extremes of the very small, very large, very slow, or very fast. They are just as apparent in astronomy and astrophysics, for example, as they are in quantum mechanics.
E-mail We should clarify that pressures can be described in two different ways, Absolute and Gauge. If you measured that pressure with an air pressure gauge, it would read 0 PSI, because there is no difference in pressure from natural.
This is called gauge pressure, and would be written 0 PSIG. They mean the same thing, and absolute pressure is always 15 higher than gauge pressure. This discussion is going to be about the so-called spark-ignition or Otto Cycle engine, the process that virtually all cars and small trucks operate on.
There are a couple common alternatives: The majority of this discussion actually applies to all three, but there are some differences. In Physics-talk, an Otto cycle has an isentropic compression, followed by a constant volume combustion explosion, followed by an isentropic expansion.
In contrast, a Diesel cycle has an isentropic compression followed by a NON-explosive combustion at relatively constant pressure, followed by the isentropic expansion. They're much alike in many ways, and you can consult any College Engineering textbook regarding the differences. If we discuss a very popular engine, the so-called small-block Chevy V-8 engine, we can put some numbers in here.
The bore diameter of the cylinder is 4", and the stroke twice the crankshaft throw radius is 3.
This engine is generally called the Chevy V When that same engine uses a crankshaft which has throws which are slightly less, at 1. An older version of the same engine had slightly smaller diameter pistons and it was the Chevy engine.
The area shown at the top of the drawing is an additional volume that remains even when the piston is at the very highest point, a location called TDC for Top Dead Center, which will mean more in our second drawing.
The space above the piston at TDC is carefully designed.
In this specific engine, it has a volume of around 6. When the piston has gotten to TDC, as in this drawing, all that gas-air mixture has now been compressed into the remaining 6. The ratio of these numbers, In this case, it is about 8. As a side note, a popular modification to engines to improve their performance is to MILL the heads.
This shaves a fraction of an inch of metal from the lower side of the heads. Do you see what the effect of this is?
But the higher compression ratio increases the temperature inside the cylinder, which can enable the fuel-air mixture to burn faster. It also can permit using gasoline which has a higher octane rating, for various benefits which will be mentioned below.
Another popular modification is to change the crankshaft to use a similar one which has increased crankshaft throws. For example, if the standard 1. Usually, the connecting rods have to also be replaced, to keep the pistons from hitting the heads at TDC, but this modification can enable an engine to process a lot more fuel-air mixture, and therefore produce quite a lot more power.
A side-effect can be bad. The structure of the engine, specifically the Main Bearings, was Designed to withstand the intended amount of power the engine could produce. When an engine is altered to produce a lot more power, then there are a LOT of mechanical stresses which are much greater, and such modified engines have greater chance to come apart, especially if run at red-line revs.The Ig Nobel Prizes were awarded on Thursday night, September 22, at the 26th First Annual Ig Nobel Prize Ceremony, at Harvard's Sanders regardbouddhiste.com ceremony was webcast..
REPRODUCTION PRIZE [EGYPT] — The late Ahmed Shafik, for studying the effects of wearing polyester, cotton, or wool trousers on the sex life of rats, and for . Physics Projects for the Evil Genius [Jerry Silver] on regardbouddhiste.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third . The Ig Nobel Prizes were awarded on Thursday night, September 22, at the 26th First Annual Ig Nobel Prize Ceremony, at Harvard's Sanders regardbouddhiste.com ceremony was webcast.. REPRODUCTION PRIZE [EGYPT] — The late Ahmed Shafik, for studying the effects of wearing polyester, cotton, or wool trousers on the sex life of rats, and for conducting similar tests with human males.
Uzikov, I.V. Uzikova. Read the whole article Download the ZIP file. Introduction Research reactors include a wide range of civil and commercial installations, which, as a rule, are not used for power generation. The estimate errors on the measured speed of the sound are between % and % which show that the method presented above to measure the speed of sound is quite accurate.
It does not involve large errors and give a quite good value for the experimental speed of sound. PHYSICS LAB REPORT: SPEED OF SOUND Purpose: In this lab, we will be doing 3 major things: 1) Collecting and organizing data to obtain resonant points in a closed pipe, 2) measure the length of a closed-pipe resonator, and 3) analyze the data to determine the speed of sound.