Consider a negative existential sentence like 4. Accordingly, there is a kind of ambiguity in 4between the following two logical forms.
The format for considering the evidence for each proposition will be the same as in previous chapters. Within a closed system Conflict Behavior will decrease in intensity through time and structures of expectations will last longer.
The greater this incongruence, the more likely the structure of expectations will be disrupted by some trigger Surprise and Perception Proposition Disruption creates conflict Disrupted Expectations Proposition And this new structure may in time become incongruent, be disrupted, again creating conflict.
However, no conflict begins nor is a structure of expectations created de novo, without history. Leaders and Descriptive proposition learn. Each conflict is informed by previous ones. The next structure of expectations is built on the experience of those that went before.
Conflict becomes ritualized or institutionalized, as various tacit understandings, rules, and limits govern conflict behavior. Successive structures of expectations tend to last longer as they become based on deeper and wider experience and communication between the parties.
As shown in Figure Each successive turn from cooperation to conflict is at a higher level of experience and insight between the parties; each turn incorporates what was learned before. But this assumes a closed system.
The Conflict Helixintervention or challenges. The successive conflict and cooperation between the parties thus can gradually adjust and increasingly find a long-run equilibrium, like a tribe isolated in a wilderness or a couple in a small farming community.
All this is the conflict helix which has been developed previously in Vol. The Conflict Helix and presented here. As long as the conditions surrounding a relationship change gradually then the periods of cooperation between two states should last longer and the conflicts that do occur should decrease in intensity.
There is a potential confusion here between these and a second kind of cooperation that which is part of the balancing of powers, the process of conflict.
Promises, negotiation, offers, signing a treaty, accepting tacit rules of conflict, and so on, play a role in the process of conflict as discussed in Section The proposition says nothing about this cooperation which is part of Conflict Behavior.
It does say that the cooperation which is part of the structure of expectations established by conflict should, internal and external conditions remaining relatively constant, become more durable.
As can be seen, the Helix Proposition or hypotheses similar to it have not been tested in the literature, nor do systematic results generally relate to it. Two studies, however, have results close enough to the proposition for me to infer support. One is by Most and Starr n. For three different data sets on war,they apply a Poisson or Modified Poisson approach to analyze the diffusion of war.
In their words Nations which were at war in one period may have had higher rates of proneness to subsequent new war participations, but they appear to have followed some natural "regression" toward [if not actually to] peace so that they became involved in fewer war participations in subsequent intervals.
The second study is by Azar et al. They analyzed reactive process models for 11, events transformed into a cooperative-conflict scale for the years and 12 dyads. Were the Helix Proposition correct, then dyads which are acting primarily with each other in view i.
That is, their reactivity coefficients should increase in time.
Of the two sources of evidence, both are indirectly relevant and are important. But the level of indirect support is not strong in either case. Caution therefore dictates the conclusion: Conflict occurs across diverse structures of expectations. Cooperative flows and structures are uncorrelated with aggregate Conflict Behavior.
Conflict Behavior begets a balance of powers and associated structures of expectations. And this structure is the framework for cooperation. But structures of expectations may become incongruent with the supporting balance, some trigger then may disrupt the structure, producing Conflict Behavior through which a new balance and structure of expectations is negotiated.
Thus, cooperation and conflict are complementary aspects of a process of mutual communications, adjustment, and cooperation. But there are many overlapping and layered structures of expectations. For example, a trade treaty between two states may exist within an overarching mutual security treaty and also be within the framework of a multinational agreement on trade.
There may be related, subordinate, or superordinate understandings, agreements or treaties on aid, military basing, off-shore fishing, foreign investment, and so on.Descriptive versus Normative Claims.
A “claim” is statement that asserts something that could be either true or false. A DESCRIPTIVE claim is a claim that asserts that such-and-such IS the case. A NORMATIVE claim, on the other hand. The Concepts of 'Descriptive Proposition' and 'Normative Proposition' as Concepts of Degree.
Svein Eng. Ratio Juris 13 (3) () Abstract This article has no associated abstract. (fix it) Keywords No keywords specified (fix it) Categories Philosophy of regardbouddhiste.com: Svein Eng. 1. What are Descriptions? Ordinarily, when philosophers talk about descriptions, they have two kinds of expressions in mind: definite descriptions—understood to be phrases of the form ‘the F’ (and their equivalents in other languages), and indefinite descriptions—understood to be phrases of the form ‘an F’ (and their equivalents in other languages).
Descriptive Proposition. Topics: Learning, A value proposition in business and marketing is a statement summarizing the customer segment, competitor targets and the core differentiation of one's product from the offerings of competitors. A company's market contribution normally extends further than its core product to include services.
As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 75, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. As a consequence of the reality basis and interest of this concept, I see the concepts of ‘descriptive proposition’ and ‘normative proposition’ as the extreme points on a graduated dimension, from the purely descriptive to the purely normative.